Macro Express @ Yale

What is Macro Express?

Macro Express is a licensed macro utility used to record, edit and play back mouse and keyboard macros. It is used in conjunction with Voyager in support of technical services processing. 

What is a Macro?

A macro is a set of commands that can be played back at will to perform a given task. These tasks can be something simple such as inserting your name and address into a word processor to something more complex such as launching a program, copying data from it, activating another program, pasting the data into it and repeating this several times. Tasks performed by macros are typically repetitive in nature allowing significant savings in time by executing the macro instead of manually repeating the commands.

Creating a Macro

There are several ways to create macros with Macro Express. One method is to capture (record) your keystrokes and mouse movements. Another method is to use the Quick Wizards. The Quick Wizards guide you through a series of questions and build the macro for you. Or you can build your own macros with the Scripting Editor or Direct Editor. YUL uses the Scripting and Direct Editor programs because the capture method is difficult to distribute over the network because of differences in workstation configurations. However, staff are free to use the capture method for unique or special processing needs. The tutorial provides examples of creating macros through each of these methods.

Playing Back a Macro

Macro Express offers several methods for executing macros. These include the use of Hot Keys, ShortKeys, Timed Macros, Window Activation, Mouse Clicks, Popup/Floating Menus and several others.

  1. A HotKey is a set of keys on the keyboard that are pressed to initiate the macro. This could include pressing CTRL+ALT+R or CTRL+F12 or any number of combinations. The HotKey is the primary means of executing macros at YUL.

  2. A ShortKey is a small string of characters. When a matching combination is keyed in from the keyboard, it is erased and the assigned macro executes. You could use the small string of #add to type out your address.

  3. A Scheduled Macro executes on a given time schedule. Scheduled Macros have not been utilized at YUL.

  4. For Window Activation, a macro runs when a specific window gains focus (appears) on your computer. At YUL, Window Activation is used at certain steps in complex macro strings.

  5. A macro may be triggered by clicking on a specific area of the screen with the left, right or middle Mouse button. This method is not recommended for mass distribution at YUL.

  6. A Popup Menu or Floating Menu is basically a list of defined macros. Once the list is displayed, click on the desired macro or press an associated number or letter to execute the macro. At YUL Popup Menus have been used as a substitute for memorizing multiple hotkey sequences, e.g. for diacritics and acquisitions macros. Floating Menus have not been used.

  7. A macro can be activated through a Batch File or Command Line. This option has not been used so far.

  8. Macros may also be activated through Windows API calls or Windows Explorer. Neither of these options have been used so far.

  9. Run a macro from the Macro Explorer by using the Run Macro Now option. This is sometimes used for disabled macros, again, to avoid memorizing keystrokes, but would not be considered a best practice.

Macro Scopes

Macro scopes allow you to place restrictions on your macros. You can assign macros to play back in all Windows programs, in one specific window or program, or in every program except the one you define.

Macro Express @ Yale is organized under 3 categories:

Documentation is used to maintain consistency of application and records standard keyboard assignments, expert user checklists, keypad maps, mapping of macros to function keys, training materials, and so on.

Using Macro Express is a list of basic tips and tricks.

Creating and Editing Macros is more advanced and gives step by step instructions for creating typical macros at YUL.

For further information, consult the Macro Express Help files, which provide detailed tutorials for creating and applying macros in Macro Express.

Effective Date: 
February 11, 2014

1. Macro Express Documentation

Macro Express Documentation includes maps to locally assigned function keys and key sequences, general guidelines for expert users for tuning up the program on new workstations, and training materials.

External Links:

Complete Macro Express Keyboard Assignments, Including Currently Unassigned Key Combinations, No Annotations (Excel)

Macro Express Hot Keys Organized by Master File Folder, Annotated, Excluding Diacritics

Basic Macro Express Function Keys (Word)

Basic Macro Express Function Keys Keyboard Template (Word; requires legal size paper)

Macro Express/Orbis Keypad Map (Word)

Training Exercises Script for Cataloging (Word)

Effective Date: 
February 11, 2014

Diacritics and Special Characters with Macro Express

These are the keys to which diacritics and special characters are mapped in Voyager according to the WINDOWS ALA KEYBOARD MAP when MACROEXPRESS is turned on. The most frequently used diacritics are on the number pad and are entered at NORMAL or (generally) ALT.*  For alternate characters mapped to the keyboard, note that most sequences begin with either CTRL ALT or CTRL ALT SHIFT, corresponding to normal and shift on the keyboard map. If a key sequence was already claimed by a MACROEXPRESS system macro, the sequence will usually begin with WIN ALT.

For NACO and non-roman script contributors, characters mapped to the number pad are also mapped to the key sequence used in Connexion. In Voyager, the character appears only after you release the keys used in a key sequence. Frequently used diacritics may also be entered through a menu window (F12). You can also evoke a supermenu, a menu listing ALL macros on the *.mex file in use with the key sequence Ctrl + Alt + Shift + z. To enter any character (or run any macro) listed on a menu, doubleclick on any menu entry (or press the letter or number to the left of the entry); this will also close the menu.

*You can  use the number pad without turning off MACROEXPRESS  by holding down the WIN key before pressing a number key on the keypad. If you have both the diacritics.mex and functionkey.mex files loaded in Program Files>Macro Express, Ctrl + Keyboard 5 allows you to switch files. So, if you are using diacritics.mex and want to use the keypad to enter numbers temporarily, press Ctrl + Keyboard 5 to switch to the functionkey.mex file, where diacritics are not mapped to the keyboard.

Æ upper case
æ ae lower case
Anglo-Saxon, Danish, Icelandic, Norwegian, Thai
acute up arrow  (8) on number pad,or,


Afrikaans, Albanian, Arabic, Assamese, Bengali, Catalan, Croatian, Czech, Dutch, French, Gujarati, Hawaiian, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Persian, Pinyin, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit, Pushto, Sanskrit, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Tagalog, Tamil, Telegu, Tibetan, Vietnamese, Wendic
alif ALT 2 on number pad, or,
Arabic, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Indonesian, Korean, Japanese, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Persian, Prakrit, Sinhalese, Tibetan, Turkish, Urdu
alpha, lower case CTRL ALT a  
angstrom or circle above ALT 3 on number pad, or, 
Czech, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, Slovak, Swedish
NOTE: for degree sign use superscript zero NOT angstrom
ayn CTRL 2 on number pad, or, 
Arabic, Armenian, Chinese, Hebrew, Korean, Persian, Pushto, Sindhi, Thai, Urdu
beta, lower case CTRL ALT  b  
breve ALT number pad  9,or, 
CTRL ALT SHIFT . <period>
Bulgarian, Esperanto, Hindi, Korean, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese, White Russian
British pound ALT SHIFT z _
candrabindu CTRL ALT  ; Assamese, Bengali, Bulgarian, Hindi, Oriya, Prakrit, Sanskrit, Telegu, Tibetan
cedilla 6 on number pad, or,
Albanian, Catalan, French, Latvian, Portuguese, Turkish
circle above 
see angstrom
circle below 3 on number pad, or,
Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Prakrit, Sanskrit, Sinhalese, Telegu, Tibetan
circumflex 4 on number pad,or,
Afrikaans, Albanian, Dutch, Esperanto, French, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi, Portuguese, Romanian, Sinhalese, Slovene, Tagalog, Telegu, Turkish, Vietnamese
copyright symbol © CTRL ALT c Used in RDA cataloging
D with  cross bar 
Ð upper case 
ð lower case
Croatian, Serbian, Vietnamese
dagger WIN ALT v  
degree Use superscript zero  (LCRI 1.0E) NOTE: Voyager assigns Shift F1 but does not appear to be activated
dot above ALT 1 on number pad, or,
Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Kannada, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Polish, Punjabi, Pushto, Russian, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Tamil, Telegu, tibetan, Turkish, White Russian
dot below 1 on number pad, or,
Arabic, Assamese, Bengali, Burmese, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Persian, Prakrit, Punjabi, Pushto, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Tamil, Telegu, tibetan, Urdu, Vietnamese
dot at mid-line CTRL 9 on number pad, or,
double acute ALT  8 on number pad, or,
double dot below * on number pad, or,
Hindi, Kannada, Persian, Pushto, Sindhi, Urdu
double tilde first half

double tilde second half

- on number pad, or,

CTRL - on number pad, or,

double underscore CTRL ALT ' <apostrophe> _
eth CTRL ALT v Anglo-Saxon, Icelandic
foot/feet USE miagkii znak (LCRI 1.0E) _
gamma CTRL ALT SHIFT c  
grave 2 on number pad, or,
Afrikaans, Catalan, Dutch, French, Italian, Pinyin, Portuguese, Tagalog, Vietnamese
hacek ALT 4 on number pad, or,
Armenian, Croatian, Czech, Latvian, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Pinyin, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovene, Thai, Wendic
high comma centered + on number pad, or,
CTRL ALT SHIFT ' <apostrophe>
high comma off center CTRL + (number pad), or,
CTRL ALT SHIFT ; <semicolon>
Czech, Macedonian, Navaho, Serbo-Croatian (Roman), Slovak, Slovene, Wendic
hook, left CTRL ALT SHIFT h Latvian, Romanian
hook, right CTRL ALT SHIFT j Anglo-Saxon, Lithuanian, Polish
hooked o 
upper case 
lower case
hooked u 
upper case 
lower case
Vietnamese, Thai
Icelandic thorn
Þ upper case
þ lower case
Anglo-Saxon, Icelandic
inches  USE tzverdii znak (LCRI 1.0E) _
inverted ¿ [inverted question mark] WIN ALT q Added to ALA character set & compatible w/MARC-8 (as well as MARC UTF 8)
inverted ¡ [inverted exclamation point] WIN ALT e Added to ALA character set & compatible w/MARC-8 (as well as MARC UTF 8)
(slashed) l see Polish l _ _
(script) ℓ CTRL ALT Shift Period _
first half 

second half

0 on numberpad, or

ALT 0 on numberpad, or,

Russian, Ukrainian, White Russian
macron 9 on number pad, or, 
CTRL ALT SHIFT , <comma>
Anglo-Saxon, Arabic, Armenian, Assamese, Bengali, Burmese, Greek (Modern), Gujarati, Hindi, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Persian, Prakrit, Punjabi, Pushto, Russian, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Tamil, Telegu, Thai, Tibetan, Urdu
miagkii znak
(also: foot/feet; minutes)
CTRL ALT g Arabic, Bulgarian, Hebrew, Persian, Pushto, Russian, Tibetan, Ukrainian, White Russian
minutes (geo. coordinates) USE miagkii znak (LCRI 1.0E) _
musical flat CTRL ALT x  

O (Scandinavian)
Ø upper case 

ø lower case

CTRL ALT SHIFT quotes   Default key sequence not working on Connexion


Danish, Norwegian
upper case 
lower case
Anglo-Saxon, French, Icelandic, Thai
Patent symbol CTRL ALT SHIFT s  
Plus minus CTRL ALT SHIFT \  
Polish L 
upper case [Ł]
lower case [ł]
CTRL ALT shift e
Polish, Wendic
Pseudo question mark CTRL ALT SHIFT ` <grave/tilde key under the ESC key> Vietnamese
seconds (geo. coordinates) USE tzverdii znak (LCRI 1.0E)  
sound recording copyright [℗] WIN ALT p Used in RDA cataloging
superior dot 
see dot above
superscript & subscript numbers subscript: CTRL ALT <number on regular keyboard>
superscript: CTRL ALT SHIFT <number on keyboard>
superscript +
superscript -

superscript (
superscript )

CTRL ALT SHIFT = <= on keyboard>
CTRL ALT SHIFT - <minus on keyboard>
CTRL ALT SHIFT [ <bracket on keyboard>
CTRL ALT SHIFT ] <bracket on keyboard>
subscript +
subscript -
subscript (
subscript )
CTRL ALT - <hyphen on keyboard>
Þ upper case 
þ lower case
tilde 5 on number pad, or,
Assamese, Bengali, Estonian, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Portuguese, Prakrutm Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Spanish, Tamil, Telegu, Tibetan, Vietnamese
Turkish i CTRL ALT s Turkish
tverdii znak
(also inches; seconds)
CTRL ALT SHIFT g Bulgarian, Russian
umlaut 7 on number pad, or,
Afrikaans, Albanian, Catalan, Chinese, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Icelandic, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Sindhi, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, Ukrainian
underscore CTRL ALT , <comma> Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Persian, Prakrit, Punjabi, Pushto, Sanskrit Sindhi, Tamil
upadhmaniya CTRL ALT . <period> Sanskrit

Macro Express 3.5: Checklist for Expert Users

Macro Express Expert User Checklist


1. Installation -- 2. Master Files -- 3. Editing Master Files & the Voyager Import Path. 3.1. Charge to Prep. 3.2. IMPORT.DAT File in Voyager. 3.3. 040 -- 4. Importing Files -- 5. Exporting Files -- 6. "No Activation" -- 7. Popup Menus -- 8. Disable/Enable -- 9. Diacritics -- 10. Macro Express System Key Sequences -- 11. Training -- 12. Search Index Macros -- 13. Checklist for Creating New Macros -- 14. Aborting -- 15. Help

1. Installation.

The Macro Express software is usually pre-loaded and pre-registered on technical services workstations configured by SML WTS (Workstation & Technology Services). Significant updates to the Macro Express files or to the program itself are not done to individual workstations, but are pushed out by WTS to all technical services workstations.

In the standard WTS configuration, Macro Express will be included in the Start Up folder. Macro Express will start automatically when logging in to the staff member's account. Under the default configuration, the splash screen, text window, and program window are suppressed at start up, so it will not be obvious that the program is running in the background. To edit MacroExpress, open the Hidden Icons tray and click on the MacroExpress icon to display the text window. Although there may be a MacroExpress icon on the Start Menu, clicking on it will not open the program for editing.  

Troubleshooting. If Macro Express is not in the Start Up folder, the expert user will need to set the Preferences or instruct staff in how to do so. Options-->Preferences-->Startup <last item in the list>-->Check "Run on Windows Startup" (all other options should be unchecked).

Troubleshooting. If Macro Express has not been pre-registered at the time of installation, it is only usable for a trial period of about a month. If the program stops working, check to see whether it has been registered. TIP: To register manually, click on Help and select License Information; enter Yale University Library under User Name; obtain the registration number from the WTS liaison or copy the number from a registered program.

Ensure that when the Macro Express window is open, Open File opens in C:\Program FilesStaff (x86)\MacroExpress 3. If a master file does not display in the staff member'sMacroExpress window, click on Open File and double-click on the appropriate master file to enable. who currently lack Macro Express: staff member will need to decide which master file to enable. See 2. below for details. Expert user may need to show or help the staff member to enable the appropriate file. To enable a macro file:

  • Click on the Folder icon on the Toolbar (or use File-->Open Macro File
  • Verify that the "Look in" is Macro Express3
  • Doubleclick on MASTER<version #>D.mex or MASTER<version #>N.mex (or click once and click the Open button). Whichever file is "Open" becomes the enabled file; only macros in the Open file can be used.


In the Macro Express 3 folder there will be at least 2 master files: MASTER<version #>D.mex and MASTER<version #>N.mex. Keep both files. Be sure the most current version is being used, but do not automatically delete the earlier version, if there, in case there are individually customized macro that need to be transferred to the current versions.  To avoid confusion, be sure that these master files are kept in Program Files-->Macro Express 3. The ...D.mex file has all the function key macros included on ...N.mex file plus the full set of diacritics.

If a new staff member takes over a workstation, WTS generally re-images the workstation and all of the programs revert to their default configurations. Make sure the re-imaged version has the current Macro Express files.

NUMBER PAD/MASTER File Toggle. On the ...D.mex file, heavily used diacritics are mapped to the number pad roughly corresponding to the old NOTIS keyboard, as well as to the regular keyboard. If the ...D.mex file is being used, you can turn off the diacritics on the number pad by holding down the WIN key. Alternatively, you can switch to the ...N.mex file with the key sequence Ctrl+Number pad 5, since ...N.mex files do not have diacritics mapped to the number pad. Toggle back to the ...D.mex file with the same Ctrl+Number Pad 5.

3. Editing the Master Files in Macro Express and the Import Path in Voyager/Cataloging

3.1. Charge to Prep (F7) is provided for use in the Circulation module that will enter the most heavily used patron code (for Cataloging, this will be a specific Prep. Team patron code assigned to members of a team). This macro must be edited to include the appropriate patron code digits for the particular team. To edit,

3.1a.   Find the macro in Macro Express edit. Click on the Nickname column to sort by name (Charge to Prep); or click on Activation to sort by key  (F7).

3.1b.   When the macro is found, double click on its listing. Under Macro Script in the right window, double click on Text Type: prptm****.

3.1c. Text type Keystrokes window will open. Replace the text prptm**** with the appropriate patron code for the unit you need to charge to. Click OK.

3.1d. Click on File Menu and click on Save.

3.1e. Test the macro in the Circulation module.

3.1f. Cataloging units may want to clone the macro and assign to different function keys for other heavily used patron code charges.

3.2. IMPORT.DAT FILE. Expert user needs to make sure there is an import.dat file in OCLCIMP. Make sure the oclc export path on OCLC Connexion is: c:\voyager\catalog\oclcimp\import.dat <NOT export.dat> Explanation: the macros to open the import files will be looking for the import.dat file. Note that the updated OCLC import file macros also map to the appropriate font before opening the import file.

3.3. 040  (Ctrl + F12) and Delimiter 040 (Shift + F12). If the cataloging unit does not use MARC21 code CtY,  their expert user will need to add the appropriate code to the macro in both the ...D.mex and ...N.mex files as follows:  

3.3a. Open the Macro Express window.

3.3b. Under the Nickname column find the macro listing for 040 or 040 Delimiter $d CtY and doubleclick on the listing.

3.3c. Two subwindows, Commands and Macro Script will open.

3.3d. Under Macro Script, find Text Type line with CtY and doubleclick on it.

3.3.e. Keystrokes window will open. Change the text to the appropriate MARC21 code.

3.3.f. Click the OK button at the bottom of the Keystrokes window, which will close.

3.3.g. Click on the Save icon on the Macro Express toolbar (or File-->Save)

3.3.h. Click on the Macro Explorer icon under the Actions column to return to the Macro list.

3.3.i. Minimize the Macro Express window.

3.3.j. Test the macro in the Cataloging Module.

4. Importing Files. 

Sometimes a particular macro is created and is not ready to be included in a WTS mass push-out. Macro files can be transferred via thumb drive or as attachments. Only files (*.mex) can be sent as attachments; macros themselves cannot be sent as attachments. (Double clicking on an attachment icon in an e-mail message will do nothing)

To import a macro from an e-mail attachment file:

4.1. In your e-mail, select the attached file's icon and open the selection menu to "Save As." Save the file to the Macro Express 3 folder.

4.2. You now need to import the file into the staff member's working master file (your target file). The target file should be open in Macro Express.

4.3. In the Macro Express editor, click on the Import Macros button on the toolbar; the Import Macro window will open. Find the Open File button at the foot of the window.

4.4. Click on Open File to open the Import Macro window, which should open in the Macro Express 3 folder.

4.5. Find the appropriate *.mex file and double click on it. The Import Macros window will open with the *.mex file listed in the formerly blank window.

4.6. Select the macro with your mouse. This will activate the Import button.

4.7. Click on the Import button. You will generally get a successful import message.

4.8.   If an imported macro has the same activation (hot key) as a macro already in your target file, you will get a notification message. Click OK. The imported macro will import without an activation. You can either assign a different activation, or disable the macro with the conflicting activation and then assign that activation to your imported macro. (You would do the latter if the imported macro is a replacement for a previously existing macro.)

5. Exporting Files. If you create new macros, the export function allows you to create a file of macros of manageable size suitable for sending as an attachment. (Don't send the master files as attachments!)

5.1. Open the Macro Express file containing the macros to be exported.

5.2. Click on the Export Macro icon on the toolbar (or use File menu-->Export-->Export Macros). The Export Macos window will open.

5.3. With the mouse, select all macros to be exported, then click on the Save File button. The Export Macros To window will open (generally in the Macro Express folder; you probably want to save the file in this folder)

5.4. Assign a name to the file in File Name slot and click the Save button. (The file extension.mex should be provided automatically)

6. "No Activation." Some No Activation macros have very specific functions and staff may not want to utilize limited key assignments on them. Other No Activation macros are used in macro strings where a hotkey activation is not necessary. Most of the macros that change the search index are not enabled, but many of them have key sequences pre-assigned. If searching in various indexes is important, the appropriate hotkeys should be enabled as described under 12.

If the key is to be activated, the range Ctrl+Shift, Alt+Shift, or Win+Crl should be used (these ranges have been set aside for custom uses). To activate, i.e. assign to a hotkey:

6.1. Open the macro file, and with the mouse select and double-click on the macro to be activated. Usually the Script tab windows (Commands/Macro Script) will open. If so, change the display by clicking on the Properties tab. The Properties windows will open (General/Activation)

6.2. In the Activation window (right), click in the Hot Key box. This will enable the Set Hot Key button.

6.3. Click on the Set Hot Key button. The Set HotKey Activation window will open with a default hotkey value selected. Click OK unless a different hotkey is preferred.

6.4. Click on the Macro Explorer icon at the top of the far left column. You will be prompted to save the change. Click OK. (Or, click on the save icon on the toolbar)

Alternatively, you can add a No Activation macro to an enabled Popup Menu without assigning a hotkey to the macro.

7. PopUp Menus.  In the standard configuration, popup menus should be assigned to the F12 key. To create a popup menu you must already have a set of macros in your *.mex file. With the appropriate *.mex file open,

7.1. Click on Add a macro button (or menu Macros-->Add a macro).  Add a Macro window will open.

7.2.   Click on the Popup Menu radio button.

7.3.   Assign a hot key, then click on the now activated  Build a Menu button.

7.4.   Available macros will appear in the upper window, and you click on the Add to add to your menu. Be sure to click on the Properties tab to assign a Nickname and the Scope tab to restrict to Catalog.exe.

7.5. Macros run from the Popup menu do not need to be assigned to a hotkey (i.e., they will run even when No Activation has been selected)

7.6. You can edit the Popup pad, adding new macros with the insert arrows, taking off macros you find you don't need, and you can move the macros up and down with the up/down arrows on the right. Or, you can edit one of the preset popup menus that come with the master files, selecting the diacritics you use the most (or the least) or the function keys you use the most (or the least). The Popup menu is sometimes most useful for infrequently used macros since the key sequence doesn't need to be memorized or looked up.

7.7.   TIP: the nickname begins with Popup menu if you need to find the menu in the macro list and you haven't assigned a category to it.

7.8. To run a macro from a Popup pad:

a. Position the cursor where the macro should begin running
b. Press the Popup pad hotkey to activate the menu display (do not activate the Voyager window before performing 8.7c following or the macro will not run)
c. Either double-click on the macro nickname in the menu display or, type the number or letter to the left of the nickname. The menu display will close automatically and the macro will run.

7.9. TIP: If you import a Popup menu from the master file, select and import all of the macros to be used in the Popup menu at the same time.

The preset popup menus are disabled. To enable the one or the other, see 9.

8. Disable/Enable. Macros disabled in the master files are considered to be generally useful enough to be assigned a standard hotkey, but require training in their use, so they are distributed in the disabled status so untrained staff will not run the macro accidentally. To enable a disabled macro:

8.1. Open the macro file, and with the mouse select and right click on the macro to be enabled. The menu options will open.

8.2. Click on Enable Macro on the menu.

8.3. Click on the Macro Explorer icon at the top of the far left column. You will be prompted to save the change. Click OK. (Or, click on the save icon on the toolbar)

9. Diacritics.

9.1. there is a table listing all the Macro Express key mappings for diacritics and special characters at:

9.2. The number pad has been mapped to the old NOTIS diacritics at Normal. The old NOTIS number pad diacritics at Shift are mapped to ALT + <keypad number>. There are some NOTIS diacritics on the keypad that were mapped to the CTRL + <keypad number>, and the mapping follows NOTIS in that case.

9.3. The same diacritics are also listed on a popup menu evoked by pressing F12. (If the menu has been enabled) If a diacritic listed on the popup menu is doubleclicked it will be entered in Voyager wherever the cursor has been placed. (A diacritic can also be entered by pressing the key for the number or letter to the left of the listing or by selecting the listing and pressing Enter.)

9.4. To turn off the diacritic mapping on the number pad (i.e. to enter numbers), press  CTRL + Number pad 5. This macro will toggle Macro Express from the ...D.mex file to the ...N.mex file. To enter diacritics again, toggle back by pressing CTRL + Number pad 5 again. Alternatively, if the ...D.mex file is open, hold down the WIN key and press the number pad numbers. (The latter is not a toggle & it is unclear why it works.)

9.5. Staff should be warned that pressing the Voyager CTRL+d sequence (which turns on the alternate character set) will cancel the Macro Express diacritics macros (the diacritics macros include Ctrl + d, so pressing CTRL + d before running the macro prevents the software from evoking the alternate character).

9.6. To enter diacritics when ...D.mex is on, NUM LOC must be on.

9.7.Diacritics mapped to the keyboard follow the Windows ALA Keyboard Map. Diacritics at “normal” position are generally evoked with Ctrl + Alt; diacritics at “shift” position are generally evoked with Ctrl+Alt+Shift.  (There are some exceptions that occur when the key sequence conflicts with a Windows or Macro Express sequence)

10. Important Macro Express System Key Sequences:

10.1. Ctrl+Alt+Shift+z  Opens the list of macros that apply to the topmost window.  If you click on any of the macros displayed on the list, it will run. To close the list, use the standard Windows command Alt+F4.

10.2. Ctrl+Alt+Shift+v. Terminates Macro Express. To re-start:

Programs-->Macro Express-->Macro Express 3

10.3. Ctrl+Alt+Shift+w Opens Macro Express Editor 

11. Training (primarily for staff new to Macro Express):

11.1. Practice use of macros in torbis rather than prodorbis

11.2. Practice in torbis: when you depress a key sequence to run a macro, you must take your fingers off the keys for the macro to execute.

11.3. Practice in torbis: The Erase-End-of-Field (EOF) macro has been mapped to Shift + Delete in the current macro file configuration. On NOTIS, EOF was on the Page Down key. The Page Down function has been retained in order to facilitate navigation in lengthy menus, something that was not a feature in NOTIS.

11.4. Practice in torbis: Text macros (all diacritics, most MFHD macros) depend on the correct placement of the cursor in order to run properly (and not replace the wrong text!).

11.5. Walk through each of the macros listed on the standard function keys table (note that this table lists macros that include all the function keys as well as important macros that are NOT mapped to the function keys and which are not listed on the template). URL for the table listing standard macros:  

11.6. There is a template for the function keys at:

NOTE: The template must be printed on legal size paper.

12. Search Index Macros:

38 new macros have been created to effect rapid selection of the desired search index.

12.1. All macros are distributed as No Activation. However, each macro has a default hotkey that will be prompted when the macro is activated. Individual users are free to map a given macro to another hotkey, especially if it is expected that the macro will be heavily used. Be sure to consult the complete keyboard mapping table to make sure that the hotkey selected for re-map is available (i.e., don't re-map to a Macro Express system hotkey, a Window key sequence you also need, or the hotkey of another macro you expect to use).

12.2. The macros are written to run in the Cataloging, Circulation, or Acquisitions modules. When switching between modules you can run the macros in all three modules in sequence, except that the Staff Headings searches are not available in the Circulation or Acquisitions modules. CAUTION: If you run multiple instances of any single module, e.g. two instances of the Cataloging module, for any given session, the first instance in which any Search macro is run will be the only instance in which the Search macros will run. So, if a Search macro is run in the second instance of the Cataloging module, the Search macros will then only work in that second instance and will malfunction if run in the first instance of the Cataloging module. To reset the Search macros close all Voyager modules and terminate MacroExpress, then restart the Voyager modules and MacroExpress.

12.3. The macros have been created for indexes in PRODORBIS (production Orbis). CAUTION: some indexes in PRODORBIS are not in Torbis (the test & training database). If you are in Torbis and try to run a macro for an index not active in Torbis, the macro will search for the index indefinitely, or until you abort it. Until the macro is aborted, you cannot run any other macros.

Some Search macros work only in Orbis and other Search macros work only in LCDB. They simply don't work, so they don't need to be aborted if run in an inappropriate database

12.4. Most of the Search macros run with a delay of 175 microseconds following the Text type command. The delay will vary depending on the workstation, and in some cases no delay is necessary. If the Search macro retrieves the wrong index, the usual solution is to increase the delay to around 300 microseconds. To change the Delay speed: double-click on Delay; a Set Delay window will open. Change the delay from 175 to 300 and click OK; then save the updated version of the macro. (Don't forget to save the macro before you test it!) Expert users can also experiment to see if the macro will run if the delay is disabled. To disable: select the Delay line and click on the ! in the left gray column and save; a red line will cross out the Delay command. To re-enable: select the Delay line and click on the ! in the left gray column and save.

13.  Checklist for Creating New Macros:

13.1. The program under which you will run your macro should be running.

13.2.   Make sure your target file is up. Click on New Macro button on the toolbar or from menu, Macros-->Add Macro. Add Macro window will open.

13.3.   From the Add Macro window, select the hot-key to be used to activate the macro. Assign your hot-key from Alt + Shift, Ctrl + Shift, or Win + Ctrl only. These ranges have been designated for individuals and specific teams. Your team may want to reserve one of these ranges for macros used by all or most members of the team. ALTERNATIVELY: select No Activation if you intend to map the macro to an existing Popup menu. Now click on the Scripting Editor button; the Scripting Editor window will open (with 2 subwindows Commands and Macro Script); note the tabs above the Command Subwindow: Script, Properties, Scope, Security, Notes.

13.4. Before you begin writing the script,  click on the Properties tab and assign a Nickname; click on the Scope Tab and click on the Program Specific radio button, then click Select. Select Programs window will open. IMPORTANT: You must select a specific program or programs under which the macro is allowed to run. If you do not specify a program, the macro will run globally (the default selection) and interfere with non-Voyager programs like Eudora or even general Windows functions.

13.5.   From the Select programs subwindow, select the program under which the macro will run. For the Voyager cataloging module, generally this will be CATALOG.EXE.  Clicking on the program name will select it to the Selected Programs subwindow. Click the Add button. CATALOG.EXE will now appear under Select from a list of installed Programs; there will be a box Run if on Top checked below. Now click the OK button. Now click on the Script Tab to go back to the Scripting Editor.

13.6.   To create a simple text macro, click on A Text under Commands, then double click on Text Type. Text Type direct editor window will open.

13.7. To enter a function in the text type string, click on the function name in the menu. It will appear in brackets. Key in unbracketed text for the macro to type in. Click OK to save the string. <to save the macro itself, you need to click on the save icon on the toolbar after clicking OK>.

13.8. Test macro. Sometimes it helps to save only a short string of commands and test to make sure the short string works before adding more commands. In Voyager, sometimes you need to include F8 to allow editing within a cell.

13.9.   In some cases, you need to insert a delay of ca. 10 microseconds between command strings. Click on Timing under Commands, then double click on Delay. Be sure to select the radio button for microseconds and enter the number of microseconds. (The default is seconds so you must re-select)

13.10.   When you add a command to a string, you may need to move it up or down in the sequence. Use the Up/Down arrows on the side of the window to do this.

13.11. Housekeeping. Keep a backup file of custom macros (macros assigned in the ranges reserved for customization).  It should be relatively easy to obtain a copy of the standard macros, but no one will ordinarily have a copy of your custom macros.

13.12. Macros based on recording of mouse positions are not readily transportable and in some cases may not work if you re-size your window. Use the Script Editor to record key strokes when possible.

13.13. The same function key or key sequence can run different macros in different modules. (If the scope is set properly)

14. Aborting.

Multiple macros cannot run concurrently in Macro Express. Most macros close after running through a prescribed and limited sequence of commands. However, some macros are set to close only after a prescribed number of sequences have run, or after a defined period of time,* or some other condition occurs. If that condition never occurs (as with some Search macros in Torbis), the macro will run indefinitely. A macro is running when a running figure is in the Start tray, usually on the bottom left corner of the Windows display. The running figure will replace the Macro Express "crossed M" as long as the macro is running. If a macro that is usually enabled does not run, check the Start tray; another macro may be running.

To abort the macro, right-click on the running figure. You will be prompted to abort the macro; click OK.

Alternatively: Abort the macro by using the key sequence Scroll Lock + Break (usually above the number pad). This might be necessary if the macro includes mouse movements, which could stop the user from being able to right click on the running icon.

*An example is the Circulation Override macro, which is set to run until 100 charges have been made; if fewer than 100 charges are made in the session, the macro will need to be aborted. However, if it is not aborted, it is set to time out after 2 minutes. If staff use the Override macro, expert users should be sure they know how to abort the macro.

15. HELP. Questions, corrections:

Acquisitions: Eric Friede.  Cataloging: Todd Fell.

Previously revised: 12/14/04

Effective Date: 
February 10, 2014

Macro Express Troubleshooting Archive

 (Jan. 2007)

1.  866. This macro is used in the MFHD to add an 866 field with the correct indicators. If you place the cursor in the preceding field, hold down the SHIFT key and press F6, the macro should add an empty 866 field:


0 1

‡b sml ‡h TN210 C65 ‡i A14+ ‡m Oversize

4 1 ‡8 0 ‡a v.42(1947)-v.83(1988),


4 1

‡8 0 ‡a

On some workstations, the macro is entering the 866 like this:


0 1

‡b sml ‡h TN210 C65 ‡i A14+ ‡m Oversize

4 1 ‡8 0 ‡a v.42(1947)-v.83(1988),


4 1

‡ ‡8 0a

To correct, edit the last Text Type line of the macro by deleting one each of <ARROW LEFT> and <ARROW RIGHT>.

On the distributed macro:


Edit the Text Type line to:


TIP: You might want to keep the old Text Type line in reserve in case you change workstations.

2. Charge to Prep. This macro is used primarily in SML Tech Services where items charged to the cataloging unit need to be charged to the Preparations team for purposes of status tracking. In the Circulation module, pressing F7 opens the Charge window, enters the barcode number for the Prep Team, and places the cursor in Item Barcode prompt slot. The macro as distributed works if entering the Prep Team Barcode evokes a Patron Blocked window. If it does not, the macro aborts. If your macro is aborting, disable the Wait for Window Title "Patron blocked" and disable all of the lines following. Save changes.

(To enable/disable, select the line in the Macro Script with your mouse and click on the exclamation point icon in the column to the left of the Macro Script window)

Macro script should now look like this:

3. Override macro (F1) [affected XP workstations]. If, after pressing F1 and scanning the first barcode, a drop down menu appears and the macro stops running, the problem can be fixed by following Text type: <ALT> o with two Enters.

4. Circulation macros [affected Windows 2000 workstations].

a. Open the macro listing from the Macro Explorer window and click on the Scope tab. The default Scope is Program Specific.

b. Click on the radio button for Window Specific and click on the Select button.

c. Select all Window titles (left box) named Voyager Circulation and click on the ADD button.

d. Click OK, then (important!) save changes. (Click on the save icon, or click on the File menu and then click save, or click on the Macro Explorer icon in the Actions column and click Yes when prompted to save the changes.)

5. Open Search Window. (Alt /). On some workstations, running the Open Search Window macro opens a "Go to Search for Box" window along with the Search window.

The macro continues to run until the "Go to" window is closed. When the "Go to" window is closed, an additional window prompting you to acknowledge the abort will also require a click.

Often the "Go to" window will appear behind the Search window, and the only indication that the macro is running will be the running figure icon in the start tray that replaces the Macro Express icon when a macro is running.

Until the macro is aborted (point cursor on the icon and right click), no other macro will run.

To fix, line out the last line of the Macro Script. (See 4.2 for lining out) Be sure to save the change!

Effective Date: 
February 12, 2014

2. Using Macro Express

A list of basic Macro Express edits and tips that most staff should be able to perform without the aid of an expert user: how to use the Staff Search index macros to change the index in the Search window, how to use locally programmed function keys in Voyager, changing preliminary record templates, how to run the status tracking macro in the circulation module, etc.

External Links.

Override (Voyager Circulation Module)

Changing Bibliographic Templates from a Pop-up Menu

Voyager Shortcuts: Function Key Macros You Need to Know About

Copying a Simple Text Macro [July 2010]

Effective Date: 
February 11, 2014

Using a Macro to Select/Change a Search Index

The Voyager search indexes are very extensive, but finding the one you need can sometimes be time-consuming. In the Cataloging Module there are 30+ indexes to select from. If you are a cataloger, you probably use the Staff Name Search index frequently to do authority checking. The Voyager search window usually opens with the Title index on top:


In Voyager you change the index--if your hand is steady--by pulling down the scrollbar, scrolling down until you find Staff Name Heading, and then clicking on it.

Or, you can click in the Search by box and type "s" until Staff Name Heading comes up. The second strategy works pretty well because the most heavily used indexes float to the top.

But if you select an index like Staff Subject Heading and then want to change to Staff Name Heading, you will have to type "s" in the Search by box 13 times (or pull down the scroll bar and click 6 times in the reverse direction and then click on Staff Name Heading). Or, if you didn't remember that you have to click in the reverse direction, you could click 22 times forward and then figure out that you were supposed to click in the reverse direction. Or you could remember that Staff Name is close to Title and Title always comes up first, and type "t" and then "s").

Or, you can use the Search Staff Names Heading Search macro.

First make sure the macro has been activated. To activate the macro, follow the instructions at: Activating a Macro. If you have difficulty following the instructions, get help from your Expert User. The activation instructions are also listed on the Tips for Expert Users section on the Macro Express at Yale home page.

Once the macro has been activated,

-open the Search window (Title will probably be the index displayed in the Search by box); note that the cursor does not need to be in the Search by box

-press down the keys Alt, Shift, and y, and then let go (the keys used to run a particular macro are called hot keys)

-the Search by menu will scroll automatically to Staff Name Headings Search and place the cursor in the Search for box

If you're new to Macro Express, note that you have to let go of the hot keys before the macro can run. All 3 keys need to be pressed down before you let go in order for the macro to run successfully. Don't press down Alt, let go, press Shift, let go, and press y: the macro won't run and the only result will probably be the letter y in the Search for box. You also don't have to snatch your hands away from the keyboard when you let go of the keys, the program will give you enough time to let go. Practice running the macro a bit until you get a feel for the response time of the program. In the documentation and in the Macro Express program's window, it is a convention for the hot key sequences to be punctuated by the plus sign; if the key sequence is given as Alt+Shift+y, don't hold down the plus key when you run the macro.

If you find the Search Staff Name Headings Search macro to be useful, consider activating other Search selection macros, such as Search Staff Subject Headings Search. The Search macros you activate should depend on the nature of the work you do. If you use the ISBN index a lot, activate the Search ISBN (020a|z) macro . If you use the Call Number index frequently, activate the Search Call Number macro. Remember that the index will not work if the database you are working in does not not use it. For example, the Search Call Number index works in Orbis but does not work in LCDB; the Search Staff Name Headings index is not available when the Cataloging Module is opened from Acquisitions.

Why do the Search macros need to be activated? There are around 40 Search macros. Different searches need to be used depending on the kind of work you are doing; most of us don't need to use all of them. Every macro activated means one less key sequence that can be used for custom hot key mapping to macros that might be far more useful for your work. (Most Search macros have their unactivated default hot keys mapped to Alt+Shift, which has been reserved for customized, workstation specific macros.)

Kudos to Eric Friede for creating all of the Search macros. If you have specific questions about the Search macros or ideas about improvement, you can e-mail him by clicking on his link on the Macro Express at Yale page.

Effective Date: 
February 12, 2014

3. Creating and Editing Macros

This section focuses on the mechanics of creating a macro or editing existing macros. It will probably be of most use to your unit's expert user or users. Coverage includes: activating a macro, creating a macro, analysis of the complex frontlog macro, and the Get Control function.

External Links:

Creating a Macro (example: Override (Voyager Circulation Module))

Deriving a New Change Template Macro from a Pre-existing Change Template Macro

Importing Macros

Frontlog Macro <draft>

Staff Search Macros Component: Editing the Get Control Function

Effective Date: 
February 11, 2014

Activating a Macro

(MEx=Macro Express)

See also: Using a Macro to Select/Change an Index

To activate the macro Search Staff Name Headings Search:

1. On most workstations that have MEx loaded, MEx is started automatically when the user logs on to Windows; the MEx icon should be in the program tray, usually at the bottom right of the window.

What you want to do is to open the MEx Macro Explorer window by clicking on the MEx icon in the program tray. The MEx Macro Explorer window will open.

View Image of MEx Macro Explorer Window (Printing tip: select Landscape)

2. The MEx Macro Explorer window has the standard menus and toolbar at the top of the window common to many Windows programs. Note also the three vertically tiled subwindows or columns: Actions, Categories, Macros. In the Macros subwindow, check the title bar to verify that you are using one of the 2 master files released with the Dec. 2006 push, MASTER3N.mex or MASTER3D.MEX. Make sure the file is located in the standard path: C:\Program Files\Macro Express 3. (We've found some workstations where the file was in the Eudora Attachments folder).

The macros have been organized in folders listed in the Categories subwindow. Select (left click) the Search & Import folder; the Macros in this folder will display in the Macros subwindow. The Macros subwindow is organized in 4 columns: Nickname, Activation, Scope, Modified. Clicking on Nickname at the top of the column will sort the macros by name; clicking on Activation will sort the macros by hot-key. You want to find the Search Staff Name Headings Search macro. Since there are 50+ macros in this folder and most of them have been assigned No Activation, your best bet is to search by nickname.

3. Click on Nickname, then scroll down to Search Staff Name Headings Search. Note that under the Activation column, the macro Search Staff Name Headings Search has No Activation. Double click on Search Staff Name Headings Search.

The MEx Scripting Editor window will display.

View Image of MEx Scripting Editor Window (Printing tip: select Landscape)

This window also has the standard menu and toolbar, along with 3 vertically tiled subwindows or columns: Actions, Commands, Macro Script. Above the Commands column note especially 5 tabs: Script, Properties, Scope, Security, Notes.

4. Click on the Properties tab. Two vertically tiled subwindows or columns will appear, General and Activation. Note the Hot Key selection box in the Activation window.

View Image of MEx Properties Tab Subwindows (Printing tip: select Landscape)

5. Click in the Hot Key selection box. The grayed-out Set Hot Key button will be activated and the default hot key sequence, Alt+Shift+Y will appear. Click on the Macro Explorer icon at the top of the Actions column. You will be prompted to save the update; click the Yes button. The Macro Explorer window will reappear. Note that under the Activation column for Search Staff Name Headings Search No Activation has been replaced by Alt+Shift+Y. Close the Macro Explorer window and test the macro.

IN CASE YOU DIDN'T KNOW: closing the Macro Explorer window (clicking the x in the upper right program window) does not close the MEx program. MEx is set up to be running at all times; you should see the MEx icon in the program tray during all of your Windows sessions. If you need to close the program, place the cursor on the MEx icon, right click to open the menu options, and then click Terminate Macro Express.

6. To assign a different hot key, click on the Set Hot Key button once it has been activated. The Set Hot Key Activation window will appear.

Type the key sequence in the space provided, or scroll through the list of key sequences and click on the sequence you want to apply. You have to be very careful if you don't accept the default key sequence. We checked most of the default hot keys and they are not in contention with other macro hot keys, Voyager functions, and Windows functions. If you assign a customized key sequence to your macro, it will override any previously assigned macro or native Voyager or Windows function. (Hey, how come my Ctrl+v doesn't work in Voyager anymore?) Check the Complete Macro Express Keyboard Assignments table to make sure the key hasn't already been assigned. Keep in mind:

a. most of the default hot keys under No Activation are in the Alt+Shift+<key> range.

b. most native Voyager commands on the menus use Alt+<key> or Ctrl+<key>; replacing the native Voyager command with another function will not only block the Voyager command, it may also disrupt other macros that include the Voyager command in the macro string.

7. Alternatively, take a look at the Function Key Template and cross check it against the table of basic Macro Express Function Keys. If you can identify a macro that is never used in your workflow, map it to that function key. For example, if you or your staff member never needs to enter 040 CtY$cCtY (Shift+F12), map a macro you expect to be used more heavily to Shift+F12. Note that a number of functions listed on the Function Key Template are native Voyager, e.g. F2, F3, F4, F8, F9--you do not want to map any macro to those keys.

Effective Date: 
February 12, 2014