Commonly used terms in the Library of Congress Medium of Performance Terms for Music (LCMPT)

Music Cataloging at Yale MARC tagging

This is a list of commonly used names of instruments, voices, and ensembles as found in the Library of Congress Medium of Performance Terms for Music (LCMPT). This is not a complete list. Please consult Classification Web (subscription required) or the Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus for Music website for the complete list.

These terms are used in conjunction with Recording medium of performance for musical works (RDA 6.15) in
the 382 field in bibliographic and authority records. See Medium of performance (MARC 382) for MARC coding in the 382 field

Instruments: keyboard | wind: woodwind | brass | bowed string | plucked string | percussion | electronic | other | early
Voices
Ensembles: instrumental | vocal

Keyboard instruments
keyboard instrument (unspecified or unidentified keyboard instrument)
celesta
clavichord
electronic keyboard
electronic piano
harpsichord
organ
piano
reed organ
Wind instruments
wind instrument (unspecified woodwind or brass instrument)
   ° woodwind instrument (unspecified woodwind instrument)
      ° reed instrument (unspecified reed instrument)
         ° double reed instrument (unspecified double reed instrument)
         ° single reed instrument (unspecified single reed instrument)
   ° brass instrument (unspecified brass instrument)
Woodwind instruments Brass instruments
flute
   ° piccolo
   ° alto flute
   ° bass flute
   ° contrabass flute
oboe
   ° English horn
   ° oboe d'amore
clarinet
   ° sopranino clarinet (use for E♭ clarinet)
   ° alto clarinet
   ° bass clarinet
   ° contra-alto clarinet
   ° contrabass clarinet
   ° basset horn
bassoon
   ° contrabassoon
recorder
   ° sopranino recorder
   ° soprano recorder
   ° alto recorder
   ° tenor recorder
   ° bass recorder
   ° contrabass recorder
   ° great bass recorder
saxophone
   ° sopranino saxophone
   ° soprano saxophone
   ° alto saxophone
   ° tenor saxophone
   ° baritone saxophone
   ° bass saxophone
   ° contrabass saxophone
horn
trumpet
flugelhorn
cornet
saxhorn
   ° alto horn
euphonium (tenor instrument of the tuba family)
baritone horn (baritone instrument of the saxhorn family, pitched in B♭)
trombone (use for tenor trombone)
   ° alto trombone
   ° bass trombone
tuba
   ° sousaphone
Bowed string instruments Plucked string instruments Percussion instruments
bowed string instrument (unspecified string instrument played with a bow)
violin
viola
cello
double bass
viola d'amore
plucked string instrument (unspecified plucked string instrument)
banjo
guitar
   ° electric guitar
   ° acoustic bass guitar
   ° resonator guitar (use for dobro)
   ° steel guitar
harp
   ° pedal harp (use for the modern Western pedal harp)
   ° Irish harp (use for Celtic harp)
lute
   ° archlute
lyre
mandolin
   ° mandola
   ° mandoloncello
ukulele
percussion instrument (a single unspecified percussion instrument)
chimes
claves
cowbell
cymbal
drum
   ° bass drum
   ° bongos
   ° snare drum
   ° timpani
   ° tom-tom drum set
glockenspiel
gong
   ° tam-tam
marimba
tambourine
tubular bells
steel drum
triangle
xylophone
Electronic instruments Early instruments
electronic instrument
   ° computer
   ° electronics
      ° live electronics
   ° MIDI controller
   ° ondes Martenot
   ° pre-recorded audio
   ° sampler
   ° sequencer
   ° synthesizer
   ° theremin
keyboard
   ° virginal
woodwind
   ° shawm
   ° cornamusa
   ° crumhorn
   ° dulcian
   ° racket
brass
   ° cornett
   ° serpent
   ° sackbut
bowed string
   ° baryton
   ° rebec
   ° viol
      ° treble viol
      ° viola da gamba
      ° violone
plucked string
   ° psaltery
Other instruments
bayan
accordion
bagpipe
bandoneon
hurdy-gurdy
Voices Vocal ensembles
voice (unspecified vocalized part)
  ° singer (a performer who uses her or his voice to produce musical tone)
      ° child's voice
         ° child soprano voice
         ° boy soprano voice
      ° high voice
         ° soprano voice
         ° countertenor voice
         ° tenor voice
      ° medium voice
         ° mezzo-soprano voice
         ° baritone voice
      ° low voice
         ° alto voice
         ° bass-baritone voice
         ° bass voice
      ° lead singer
      ° female voice
      ° male voice
   ° speaker (a performer who uses a speaking, rather than a singing, voice)
vocal ensemble (two or more unspecified voices)
  ° solo vocal ensemble (solo voices)
  ° chorus (unspecified chorus of voices)
      ° children's chorus
      ° chorus changing voices
      ° equal voices (all the voices parts are for one type of voice)
      ° men's chorus (adult male voices)
      ° mixed chorus
      ° spoken chorus (performers who use a speaking voice rather than a singing voice)
      ° women's chorus
Instrumental ensembles
instrumental ensemble (diverse instruments that cannot be described by a more specific term)
   ° orchestra
      ° chamber orchestra
   ° string orchestra
   ° band
      ° big band (generally 10-15 solo instruments, sometimes including a vocalist)
      ° brass band (brass instruments, sometimes percussion)
   ° keyboard ensemble (two or more varied keyboard instruments)
      ° harpsichord ensemble
      ° organ ensemble
      ° piano ensemble
   ° wind ensemble (two or more mixed wind instruments)
      ° woodwind ensemble (two or more different woodwind instruments)
         ° flute choir
         ° oboe ensemble
         ° clarinet choir
         ° saxophone ensemble
      ° brass ensemble (diverse brass instruments that cannot be described by a more specific term)
         ° cornet ensemble
         ° trumpet ensemble
         ° horn ensemble
         ° trombone ensemble
         ° tuba ensemble
   ° bowed string ensemble mixed or unspecified ensemble of bowed string instruments)
      ° violin ensemble
      ° viola ensemble
      ° cello ensemble
   ° plucked instrument ensemble
      ° guitar ensemble
      ° harp ensemble
      ° lute ensemble
      ° mandolin ensemble
   ° percussion ensemble
      ° handbell choir
      ° mallet ensemble
      ° marimba ensemble
      ° steel band
   ° electronics (unspecified electronic sounds, either produced live or from a recording)
      ° live electronics
      ° processed sound