Special coded dates (MARC 046)

Music Cataloging at Yale MARC tagging

Note: this page was created with music cataloging in mind.

Sources: LC MARC 21 format for 046 - Special coded dates and DCM Z1

Indicators | Subfields persons | corporate bodies | families | works and expressions
Extended date/time format (edtf)
Examples: persons | corporate bodies | works and expressions

The 046 field (Special coded dates) is for dates associated with the entry described in an authority or bibliographic record.

The date and time are recorded according to Extended Date Time Format (EDTF) in the pattern using 4 digits for the year, 2 for the month, and 2 for the day, each element separated by a hyphen:
     year = yyyy
     year and month = yyyy-mm
     year, month, and day = yyyy-mm-dd
     Use subfield ‡2 edtf to indicate the date schema.
See Using the Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) 1.0 scheme below.

Note: Previously, the date scheme Representations of Dates and Times (ISO 8601) was used. On 8/21/2015, Paul Frank (Acting Coordinator, NACO and SACO Programs) announced on the PCC-List that the formatting of dates in the 046 field has changed to the Extended Date Time Format (EDTF) schema in all cases except for centuries. 046 fields in existing name authority records using the ISO 8601 date schema will be reformatted to conform to the new DCM Z1 guidelines during the Phase 3B changes to the LC/NACO Authority File.

The application of EDTF to dates applies only to the 046 field, not to date(s) in subfields ‡s or ‡t in other fields (e.g., start and end dates in the 37X fields) since ‡2 in those fields are already being used for other purposes and therefore cannot be used to identify EDTF as the source of the encoding for a date.

Instructions for PCC catalogers in Descriptive Cataloging Manual (DCM) Z1, section on field 046:
Best practice: When encoding date information, give the fullest information about the date that is readily available.
     ° The date in an 046 may be more precise than a date used in the 100 ‡d.
     ° When revising existing authority records, record dates in the 046 when the information is readily available even if the authorized access point itself does not have dates in 100 ‡d.
     ° The 046 field must be repeated when subfield ‡2 does not apply to all dates.

Indicators
1st blank
2nd blank
Subfields
persons
examples
a person's date of birth, date of death, and the date or date range of the person's period of activity
Use in conjunction with Date associated with the person (RDA 9.3)
Subfields: f = birth date (9.3.2): the year a person was born
     ° may include the month and day of the person's birth
     ° code in this format: yyyymmdd
g = death date (9.3.3): the year a person died
     ° may include the month and day of the person's death
s = start period (9.3.4): start date for period of activity associated with the person
t = end period (9.3.4): end date for period of activity associated with the person
corporate bodies
examples
a date or range of dates on which a conference, etc., is held, or a date with which the corporate body is otherwise associated (e.g., date of establishment, date of termination)
Subfields: q = establishment date: the year a corporate body was established
     ° use when a corporate body’s date of establishment and date of termination are both unknown (11.4.5.3)
     ° may include the month and day of the corporate body’s establishment
     ° Please do not use the new subfields ‡q and ‡r until further notice. (PCC list; 7/13/2015, from Paul Frank, Acting Coordinator, NACO and SACO Programs)
r = termination date: the year a corporate body was terminated
     ° use when a corporate body’s date of establishment and date of termination are both unknown (11.4.5.3)
     ° may include the month and day of the corporate body’s termination
     ° Please do not use the new subfields ‡q and ‡r until further notice. (PCC list; 7/13/2015, from Paul Frank, Acting Coordinator, NACO and SACO Programs)
s = start period: earliest date in a period of activity
t = end period: latest date in a period of activity
families a significant date associated with a family
works and expressions
examples
a significant date associated with a work or expression
Use in conjunction with Recording date of work (RDA 6.4-6.5)
Subfields: work:
k = Beginning or single date created: earliest date (normally the year) associated with a work
     ° may be the date the work was created or first published or released
     ° may be the starting date of a range or a single date
expression:
k = Beginning or single date created: the earliest date (normally the year) associated with an expression
     ° may be the date of the earliest known manifestation of that expression
     ° may be the starting date of a range or a single date
l = Ending date created: Ending date of the date range for which the beginning date is recorded in ‡k (applies to both work and expression)
o = Single or starting date for aggregated content: Single or starting date of original release of the contents of a collection/aggregation
p = Ending date for aggregated content: Ending date of original release of the contents of a collection/aggregation
Using the Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) 1.0 scheme:
     To check that a date for conforms to EDTF, use the EDTF validator
Character: Indicates:
? uncertain date
~ approximate date
?~ uncertain as well as approximate date
Character: Used:
u used in place of a digit to indicate that the value of that digit is unspecified;
     ° it may be substituted for each of multiple digits
     ° unspecified portion may be supplied later
x x may replace the last digit and xx the last two digits in a four-digit date string to represent have decade precision and century precision
     ° there is no expectation that the unspecified portion may be supplied later
"u" vs "x" "196x" = an unspecified year in the 1960s; precise year is not supplied for unspecified reasons; the year may be supplied later
"196u" = a date during the 1960s; precise year is not supplied because it is known only with decade precision
/ use a forward slash to separate an interval of two dates representing a period of time beginning sometime during the start date and ending sometime during the end date
     ° either date may be a year, year-month, or year-month-day
     ° there is no space between the dates
[ ] use to enclose set of dates
     ° use a comma to separate two dates, indicating the date is known to be one of two years
     ° there is no space between the dates
{ } use to enclose an inclusive list of multiple dates (all members included) (see 5.3.4 Multiple dates)
     ° for consecutive dates, this means a discrete set, not an interval, of dates
     ° use a comma to separate dates
     ° there is no space between the dates
.. double dots at the beginning or end of a date mean "on or before" or "on or after" respectively
Formatting dates: 4 digits for the year, 2 for the month, and 2 for the day
Use the pattern: For:
yyyy single year
yyyy-mm single year and month
yyyy-mm single year and month
yyyy-mm-dd single year, month, and day
yyyy~ approximate year
yyyy? uncertain year
yyyy?~ approximate year that is uncertain
yyyy-2x season; 21 = spring, 22 = summer, 23 = autumn, 24 = winter
yy century is known Note: edtf format not used for century; use the format "yy": e.g., 18 for 17th century
yyyu decade is known
[yyyy,yyyy] one of two consecutive years
[..yyyy] on or before
[yyyy..] on or after
Go to www.loc.gov/standards/datetime/listserv.html to subscribe to the listserv for discussion of the EDTF date/time format.
Examples
Examples: Persons:
Known dates Type of date Example of ‡d 046
Single year year of birth 1978- ‡f 1978-04-26 ‡2 edtf
year of birth; month needed to resolve conflict 1956 January 29- ‡f 1956-01-29 ‡2 edtf
year of death -1625 ‡g 1625 ‡2 edtf
Range of years dates of birth and death known 1910-2011 ‡f 1910-08-27 ‡g 2011-02-21 ‡2 edtf
years of birth and death known; month of birth needed to resolve conflict 1937 February 26-2000 ‡f 1937-02-26 ‡g 2003 ‡2 edtf
year of birth; month needed to resolve conflict 1956 January 29- ‡f 1956-01-29 ‡2 edtf
specific day of birth varies 1912-1983 ‡f [1912-07-14,1912-07-19,1912-07-27] ‡g 1983-03-07 ‡2 edtf
Known to be one of two dates in the same year date of birth known;
date of death varies in different sources: died April 24 or 25, 1939
1880-1939 ‡f 1880-11-02 ‡g [1939-04-24,1939-04-25] ‡2 edtf
date of birth known;
date of death varies in different sources: died July 31, 2012 or August 1, 2012
1921-2012 2 046 fields:
‡f 1921-11-08 ‡2 edtf
‡g [2012-07-31, 2012-08-01] ‡2 edtf
years of birth and death known; date of death differs in sources: died August 28 or 29, 1998; source of death dates given in ‡v in separate 046 fields 1923-1998 3 046 fields:
‡f 1923-03-12 ‡2 edtf
‡g 1998-08-28 ‡v New York times WWW site, Nov. 19, 2012 ‡2 edtf
‡g 1998-08-29 ‡v Social Security death index, Nov. 19, 2012 ‡2 edtf
Known to be one of two years year of death -1372 or 1373 ‡g [1372,1373] ‡2 edtf
year of birth 1569 or 1570-1600 ‡f [1569,1570] ‡g 1600 ‡2 edtf
year of birth and death 1622 or 1623-1680 or 1681 ‡f [1622,1623] ‡g [1680,1681] ‡2 edtf
Approximate dates Type of date Example of ‡d 046
Single year year of birth approximately 1720- ‡f 1720~ ‡2 edtf
year of death -approximately 1581 ‡g 1581~ ‡2 edtf
Range of years year of birth known; year of death approximate 1566-approximately 1638 ‡f 1566 ‡g 1638~ ‡2 edtf
year of birth approximate; year of death known approximately 1539-1582 ‡f 1539~ ‡g 1582 ‡2 edtf
year of birth and death both approximate approximately 1540-approximately 1600 ‡f 1540~ ‡g 1600~ ‡2 edtf
year of birth one of two years; year of death one of two years 1762 or 1764-1812 or 1814 ‡f [1762-05-15,1764-05-07] ‡g [1812,1814] ‡2 edtf
Probable dates Type of date Example of ‡d 046
Single year year of death -1557? ‡g 1557? ‡2 edtf
Unspecified dates Type of date Example of ‡d 046
Single day some day in December, 1411 -1411 ‡g 1411-12-uu ‡2 edtf
Single decade decade of birth [no date in heading] ‡f 189u ‡2 edtf
Single estimated decade 193-? [no date in heading] ‡f 1930?/1939? ‡2 edtf
Single century 20th century [no date in heading] ‡s 20 (edtf format not used for century)
Active dates Type of date Example of ‡d 046
Single year known year active 1745 ‡s 1745 ‡2 edtf
approximate year active approximately 1490 ‡s 1490~ ‡2 edtf
Range of years start and end years both known active 1639-1645 ‡s 1639 ‡t 1645 ‡2 edtf
start year known; end year approximate active 1687-approximately 1735 ‡s 1687 ‡t 1735~ ‡2 edtf
start year approximate; end year known active approximately 1390-1417 ‡s 1390~ ‡t 1417 ‡2 edtf
both years approximate active approximately 1470-approximately 1485 ‡s 1470~ ‡t 1485~ ‡2 edtf
start year questionable; end year known active 1385?-1395 ‡s 1390~ ‡t 1417 ‡2 edtf
century known active 17th century ‡s 16
active in two centuries active 16th century-17th century ‡s 15 ‡t 16
century of start is approximate; century of end is known active approximately 12th century-13th century ‡s 11~ ‡t 12~ ‡2 edtf
Approximate, probable years Type of date Example of ‡d 046
  probable year of birth; approximate year of death 1656?-approximately 1712 ‡f 1656? ‡g 1712~ ‡2 edtf
approximate year of birth; probably year of death approximately 1560-1621? ‡f 1560~ ‡g 1621? ‡2 edtf
approximate year of birth; death one of two known years approximately 1708-1752 or 1753 ‡f 1708~ ‡g [1752,1753] ‡2 edtf
probable year of birth; death one of two probably years 1768?-1798 or 1799? ‡f 1768? ‡g [1798?,1799?] ‡2 edtf
born c1500, died after 1547 approximately 1500- ‡f 1500~ ‡g [1548..] ‡2 edtf
One of two known years Type of date Example 046
  different year of birth in different sources born 1945 in one source, 1946 in another 2 046 fields:
‡f 1945 ‡v Contretänze, c1986 ‡2 edtf
‡f 1946-03-17 ‡v Grove Music online, viewed April 15, 2013 ‡2 edtf
different year of death in different sources died 1955 in one source, 1951 in another 2 046 fields:
‡f 1955 ‡v Timbrell, C. French pianism, c1992 ‡2 edtf
‡f 1951 ‡v Portuguese Wikipedia, March 27, 2014 ‡2 edtf
Examples: Corporate bodies:
Known dates Type of date Example 046
Single year year of beginning founded 1867 ‡s 1867 ‡2 edtf
year and month founded: July 2010 ‡s 2010-07 ‡2 edtf
Multiple years year of beginning and end formed 1981, disbanded 1998
reunited briefly in 2005
2 046 fields:
‡s 1981 ‡t 1998 ‡2 edtf
‡s 2005 ‡t 2005 ‡2 edtf
Examples: Works and expressions:
Single year Type of date Example 046
  year only composed 2008 ‡k 2008 ‡2 edtf
year of arrangement arranged by the composer in 1982 ‡k 1982 ‡2 edtf
probable year composed in 1795? ‡k 1795? ‡2 edtf
by a year composed by 1775 ‡k [..1775] ‡2 edtf
year and month August 1960 ‡k 1960-08 ‡2 edtf
composed no later than August 1762 [..1762-08] ‡2 edtf
year, month, and day December 27, 1927 ‡k 1927-12-27 ‡2 edtf
range of specific months within a single year composed September-November 1986 ‡k 1986-09 ‡l 1986-11 ‡2 edtf
Range of years Type of date Example 046
  years composed 2006-2007 ‡k 2006 ‡l 2007 ‡2 edtf
range of years composed 2010-11 ‡k 2010 ‡l 2011 ‡v Peter Fribbins WWW site, April 22, 2013 ‡u http://www.peterfribbins.co.uk/repertoire.html#piano ‡2 edtf
season written at Christmas 2011 ‡k 2011 ‡l 2012 ‡2 edtf
range of specific months over two or more years composed between December 16, 2011, and February 1, 2012 ‡k 2011-12-16 ‡l 2012-02-01 ‡2 edtf
range of specific dates composed January 4-18, 1878 ‡k 1878-01-04 ‡l 1878-01-18 ‡2 edtf
beginning date uncertain; revised composed before November 1792; revised in 1793 ‡k 1792-11~ ‡l 1793 ‡2 edtf
different years given in different sources 1890 given as date in one source, another source gives 1890 to the end of 1893 or the beginning of 1894 ‡k 1890 ‡l [1893,1894-02] ‡2 edtf
approximate year c. 1740 ‡k 1740~ ‡2 edtf
range of approximate years c1860-63 ‡k 1860~ ‡l 1863~ ‡2 edtf
approximate decades late 1840s or early 1850s ‡k [184u,185u] ‡2 edtf
uncertain years composed probably after about 1717, 1736 at the latest ‡k 1717~/1736 ‡2 edtf
One of two known years Type of date Example 046
  different year of composition in different sources 2008 in one source, 2009 in another 2 046 fields:
‡k 2008 ‡2 edtf
‡k 2009 ‡2 edtf
1977 in one source, 1978 in another 2 046 fields:
‡k 1977 ‡v Dusapin, P. Trio, p1984 ‡2 edtf
‡k 1978 ‡v Grove music online WWW site, viewed June 9, 2014 ‡2 edtf
Multiple separate dates Type of dates Example 046
  date of composition and revision date composed 2003, revised 2005 ‡k {2003,2005} ‡2 edtf
composition finished at 3:00 PM, September 25, 2004; revised September 2013 ‡k {2004-09-25T15:00,2013-09} ‡2 edtf
completed September 1985 and revised July 2009 Note: ‡k and ‡l have also been used to indicate composition and revision dates:
‡k 1985-09 ‡l 2009-07 ‡2 edtf
Dates of contents of a collection/aggregation Type of dates Example 046
  multiple single years earliest and latest dates for 3 works published in a collection ‡o 2010 ‡p 2013 ‡2 edtf