Subject subdivisions and qualifiers for music subject headings

Music Cataloging at YaleSubject cataloging

See also: Subject headings for instrumental music and vocal music | Coding for form and topic subdivisions

Subdivisions may bring out topical, geographic, chronological, or form aspects.

° Free-floating subdivision for musical format
° Geographical subdivision of music form/genre headings
° Subdivisions frequently used in subject headings for personal names
° Qualifiers and subdivisions for instrumental music (Arranged, Instrumental settings)
° Qualifying by language of text

Free-floating subdivision for musical format Chronological subdivisions | Musical presentation and medium of performance subdivisions

Chronological subdivisions:

The following chronological subdivisions are valid for use with music form or genre subject headings or with subject headings for collections of Western art music by two or more composers devoted to a specific period or century:

‡y To 500
‡y 500-1400
‡y 15th century
‡y 16th century
‡y 17th century
‡y 18th century
‡y 19th century
‡y 20th century
‡y 21st century

Note that ‡y To 1800 is not a valid subdivision, but once was.

Note that ‡v Early works to 1800 is not a chronological subdivision, but a form/topical subdivision.

Chronological subdivisions combining centuries, such as "‡y 15th-16th centuries," are not permitted

These chronological subdivisions are not valid for use under form/genre headings for musical works:
° when the period or century is referred to only in a series statement
° for works by one composer
° for individual musical works
° in headings for folk or non-Western music
° following the subdivisions --Hymns; --Music; --Musical settings; and --Songs and music

See also Chronological subdivisions for popular music.

Musical presentation and medium of performance subdivisions:

The table below includes the list of free-floating musical presentation and medium of performance subdivisions.

Free-floating musical presentation and medium of performance subdivisions

‡v 2-harpsichord scores
‡v 2-piano scores
‡v 3-piano scores

‡v Chorus scores with organ
‡v Chorus scores with piano
‡v Chorus scores without accompaniment
‡v Excerpts
‡v Excerpts, Arranged
‡v Instructive editions
‡v Simplified editions
‡v Teaching pieces

‡v Parts
‡v Parts (solo)

‡v Scores
‡v Scores and parts
‡v Scores and parts (solo)

‡v Organ scores
‡v Piano scores
‡v Piano scores (4 hands)

‡v Solo with harpsichord
‡v Solo with harpsichord and piano
‡v Solo with keyboard instrument
‡v Solo(s) with organ
‡v Solo(s) with piano
‡v Solo(s) with pianos (2)

‡v Cadenzas

‡v Orchestral excerpts

‡v Vocal scores with accordion
‡v Vocal scores with continuo
‡v Vocal scores with guitar
‡v Vocal scores with harpsichord
‡v Vocal scores with keyboard instrument
‡v Vocal scores with organ
‡v Vocal scores with organ and piano
‡v Vocal scores with piano
‡v Vocal scores with piano (4 hands)
‡v Vocal scores with pianos (2)
‡v Vocal scores without accompaniment
‡v 2- piano scores and ‡v Solo(s) with pianos (2) when used for works for solo instrument(s) and accompaniment of larger ensemble:
Use "‡v 2-piano scores" when the solo instrument is one type of keyboard instrument and the accompaniment has been arranged for that same instrument:
     Concertos (Piano) ‡v 2-piano scores
     Passacaglias (Piano with orchestra) ‡v 2-piano scores
     Concertos (Harpsichord) ‡v 2-harpsichord scores
However, when the solo instrument is one type of keyboard instrument, and the accompaniment is arranged for another type of keyboard instrument, use "‡v Solo(s) with ______ (2)"
‡v 2-piano scores, ‡v 2-harpsichord scores, ‡v 2-organ scores, etc., are also used in subject headings for large works such as operas, ballets, etc.:
     Ballets ‡v 2-organ scores
     Operas ‡v 2-piano scores.
‡v Excerpts is used as a form subdivision under motion picture forms and genres and under forms and types of musical compositions, but not under headings for medium of performance.
‡v Excerpts, Arranged is used as a form subdivision under forms and types of musical compositions, but not under headings for medium of performance.
‡v Instructive editions vs. ‡v Teaching pieces:
From Glossary and General Guidelines of Class M (Music):
Instructive edition: "an edition of a work heavily annotated with textual instructions about how to practice and interpret various passages. Do not class as instructive editions those that merely contain standard interpretive markings, fingering, etc., whether the composer's own or subsequently added."
Teaching piece: "a work composed principally for pedagogical purposes."
‡v Parts (solo): "Parts (solo)" is used for the solo part(s) in a concertante work.
‡v Scores and parts (solo) is used for the full score of a concertante work and the soloist's part only.
‡v Piano scores is used for arrangements for solo piano of works originally in a different medium of performance. This concept also applies to ‡v Piano scores (4 hands) (as opposed to the heading Piano music (4 hands), which is for original music for piano, 4 hands) and ‡v Organ scores.
These subdivisions can be used in subject headings for:
° printed music; the only free-floating subdivisions authorized for use with sound recordings in LCSH are headings for concertante work in which the orchestral accompaniment has been arranged for one or two keyboard instruments (e.g., piano, pianos (2), etc.): ‡ Solo with _________.
° collections of musical works or to individual musical works where the medium of performance is generally stated or implicit
° specific form/genre headings
° works for 2 or more instruments and performers
      Oboe and violin music ‡v Scores.
      Piano music (Pianos (2)) ‡v Scores.
° these collective headings:
     Chamber music
     Dramatic music
     Instrumental music
     Sacred vocal music
     Vocal music
These subdivisions cannot be used in subject headings for:
° headings for music of special seasons, occasions, or styles, etc., or for specific texts that neither state nor imply medium of performance, in which the medium is not directly stated or implied.
 Christmas music
 Country music
 Te Deum laudamus (Music)
° the following vocal forms and types:
 Buddhist [Hindu, etc.] hymns
 Hymns, English, [French, etc.]
 Madrigals, English, [French, etc.]
 Part songs
 Part songs English, [French, etc.]
 Part songs, Sacred
° headings for types of works that are generally published in only one musical presentation or format:
electronic media:
Computer music
Electronic music
Musique concrète
music of a single instrument, 1 or more performers.
Violin music
Piano music (4 hands)
Sonatas (Piano, 4 hands)
° the following vocal music forms and types when the works are unaccompanied, accompanied by one instrument, accompanied by continuo, or accompanied by two keyboard instruments:
 Choruses, Sacred
 Choruses, Secular
 Sacred duets [trios, etc.]
 Sacred songs
 Sacred vocal ensembles
 Vocal duets [trios, etc.]
 Vocal ensembles
° under headings with following the subdivisions --Hymns; --Music; --Musical settings; and --Songs and music

Geographical subdivision of music form/genre headings:

H 364 of the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings (SCM): Headings for musical form/genre and for medium of performance may be subdivided geographically, to be assigned according to the following guidelines:

  • use geographic subdivisions for collections of musical works, including multipart items, series, single items from any of these types, and topical materials.
  • use them only when geographic focus is stated or implied in the title or series title of the item being cataloged.
  • use a geographic subdivision under the most specific heading that is applicable to all or most of the works in the collection.
  • assign more specific headings that may also be appropriate without geographic subdivision.

Geographic subdivisions are not used:

  • for collections of works by a single composer
  • following the subdivisions --Hymns; --Music; --Musical settings; and --Songs and music.

Don't confuse place with language.

  • Language follows the heading after a comma, and is in adjective form.
  • Place follows the heading in subfield z, and the form of the name of the place must match the form found in the authority file.
    correct: Songs, English ‡z United States
    incorrect: Songs, American.

Subdivisions frequently used in subject headings for personal names

Subdivision Instructions for use
‡v Musical settings     use when a literary work has been set to music with no collaboration between composer and author. Do not include a ‡t with the title of the work that has been set to music.
Songs and choruses frequently fall into this category. Make an added entry for the author as well. Opera librettists, who usually collaborated with the composer, are not assigned a subject heading.)
‡v Songs and music use when a non-dramatic composition (such as an oratorio) is about a person.
‡v Drama use when a dramatic composition (operas, ballets, etc.) is about a person.
‡v Songs and music may also be used with topical subject headings:
650 0 Seasons ‡v Songs and music.
650 0 Robin Hood (Legendary character) ‡v Songs and music.

Subdivisions for subject headings for vocal music

These subdivisions are used when the accompaniment has been reduced:
‡v Vocal scores with        .
‡v Chorus scores with        .

These subdivisions are used when the accompaniment has been omitted:
‡v Vocal scores without accompaniment.
‡v Chorus scores without accompaniment.

Qualifiers and subdivisions for instrumental music

Arranged: Subject Cataloging Manual section H 1160 prescribes the use of the qualifier "Arranged" for subject headings for instrumental music only. It is not added to headings for vocal music, such as songs and choruses. (For subject headings for arranged vocal works, see Subject headings for vocal music; Arrangements.) Add "Arranged" to a heading for the medium for which the piece has been arranged. However, the original medium of performance is used in the uniform title. These uniform title/subject heading combinations would be possible:

Original medium = flutes; arranged medium = clarinets:
uniform title Trio, ‡m flutes (3), ‡r A major; ‡o arranged
subject heading Woodwind trios (Clarinets (3)), Arranged.
Original medium = violin and orchestra; arranged medium = viola and orchestra:
uniform title Concertos, ‡m violin, orchestra, ‡n op. 61, ‡r D major; ‡o arranged
subject heading Concertos (Viola), Arranged.
Original medium = chorus and orchestra; arranged medium = brass quintet:
uniform title Messiah. ‡p Hallelujah; ‡o arranged
subject heading Brass quintets (Horn, trombone, trumpets (2), tuba), Arranged.

‡v Instrumental settings: Use ‡v Instrumental settings after headings for vocal music that has been arranged for instruments:

Original medium = voice; arranged medium = woodwind trio:
Folk songs ‡v Instrumental settings. Woodwind trios (Bassoon, flute, oboe), Arranged.
Original medium = voice, arranged medium = string quartet:
Spirituals (Songs) ‡v Instrumental settings. String quartets, Arranged.