Added Copy or New Record

Copies for books added to an existing Orbis bibliographic record as MFHD records must conform to the following standards and definitions.


  1. Standard numbers (LCCN and/or ISBN) are the same.
  2. Title (including subtitle) and statement of responsibility are the same.
  3. Edition statement is the same.
  4. Place of publication is the same.
  5. Publisher is the same.
  6. Date of publication is the same.
  7. Extent of item [pages or volumes] is the same.
  8. Series, if there, is the same.


Treat as an added copy if the item in hand otherwise matches the standards for an exact copy listed above, but one or more of the following variations applies. If in doubt, consult with your supervisor.

When there is a difference in acceptable standards for variation among LC, ALCTS, and OCLC, processing staff can follow the more liberal ALCTS or OCLC interpretations if there is a question of adding an additional MFHD to a record in Orbis vs. creating a new Orbis record. However, if the book has not yet been cataloged for Orbis and the cataloger is comparing cataloging copy from the utility with the item in hand, and the cataloger wishes to contribute the record at pcc level, the stricter LCRI 1.0 needs to be followed, since the LC standards apply to both LC and PCC contributions.

Special collections such as Beinecke, AOB, and BAC may have fewer acceptable variations for added copies. See especially GUIDELINES FOR ADDED VARIANT COPIES at the end of this document for restrictions on editing bibliographic records when copies are added.

  1. Absence or presence of LCCN/ISBN vs. the bibliographic record. (OCLC, LC) 
  2. OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards lists acceptable variations in 245, e.g. variations in punctuation, cataloger's judgment about what to include, etc. Worth consulting for the gray areas. (LC does not recognize any gray areas here.) 
  3. Edition statements in foreign language publications when the statement represents a printing rather than a new publication. OCLC: " If the edition statement appears in conjunction with the printer's name or the number of copies printed, generally consider the edition statement to reflect printing information. Use the existing record. In all other cases, use judgment. " (ALCTS is similar at a more general level; not acceptable by LC) 
  4. Presence/absence of 1st ed. or equivalent (ALCTS/OCLC; not acceptable by LC) 
  5. Presence/absence of Book club ed. or Paperback ed. or their equivalent (per ALCTS/OCLC) [must be the same publisher]. NOTE: consider "book club ed." to be of the "book of the month club" type, where only minor variations in extent, size, etc. are involved. Reading group book club editions, if they include supplementary appendices of discussion questions, etc., should get a new record. If the reading group edition lacks any supplementary material (i.e., identified only by a label or statement like Oprah's book club), treat as a copy. 
  6. Place of publication, as long as the publisher is the same. (This follows OCLC's guidelines roughly):
    a. Accept a change of place within the same country between printings of the same edition. (First printing, San Francisco; 2nd printing, San Diego) 
    b. Accept a variation in the choice of place if the book has more than one place of publication where the places are in different countries, e.g., per AACR2, if a book is published in Toronto and Chicago, a Canadian library only transcribes Toronto, but a U.S. library transcribes Toronto [always record the first place] and Chicago.
    c. Accept also variations in place of publication among copies of the book, as long as the publisher is the same and the first place is the same, e.g. a book published in Denmark with only Kobenhavn, but another copy has the same publisher but with both Kobenhavn and Chicago. 
  7. Minor variations in the name of publisher. ALCTS and LC examples: St. Martin's vs. St. Martin's Press; John Wiley & Sons vs. Wiley; G. Duckworth vs. Duckworth. Don't confuse minor variations in the publisher name with publisher name changes, which require a new record. For examples of name changes requiring a new record, refer to section below, Items requiring a new record, 6.
  8. Differences in printing or copyright date when there is also a publication date if there is no evidence that the item in hand represents another edition. (LC) 
  9. Minor variations in extent (e.g. 351 p. vs. 353 p.; preliminary pages not recorded). (ALCTS, OCLC; not LC) If it is evident that the extra pages represent a revision (e.g. an updated bibliography), a new record should be created. 
  10. Minor variations in size. ALCTS considers more than 2 cm. to be a major size variation; however, a somewhat greater size variation would be OK for the hardcover vs. trade paperback if the publisher is the same. Differences in extent or size between the hardcover and amass market paperback, even if the publisher is the same, will generally require a new record. 
  11. Paperback/paper bound copies vs. hardcover (if the publisher is the same). But check carefully for information about updates and revisions in the paperback edition; in that case a new record should be made. For acceptable variations in publication and physical description information, refer to 6.-10. above.

*LC considers any variation in place to warrant a new record.