Cataloging @Yale

8. 264/[260] ‡a: Place of Publication with Examples

A <space><semicolon><space><‡a> precedes a 2nd or subsequent place of publication:

260     ‡a Toronto ; ‡a New York ...

A <space><colon><space><‡b> precedes each publisher, distributor, etc.:

A <comma><space><‡c> precedes the date subfield:

260     ‡a Toronto ; ‡a New York : ‡b Smith ; ‡a Chicago : ‡b Jones,‡c 2010.

End 260 with a period unless the date is in brackets (don't use double punctuation in that case):

... ‡c 2010.

... ‡c [1980]

New with RDA:

Most records created prior to August 2012 will use 260, but beginning sometime in July, a new MARC tag will be used on LC (and some member records) to transcribe what RDA calls production, publication, distribution and/or manufacturer. The first indicator will be blank, the second indicator will determine the type of statement. The subfields will remain the same.

____ 264_1 Publication statement. This will be the most common tag. The subfield indicators ‡a, ‡b, and ‡c will be the same as in 260. Subfield delimiters ‡e, ‡f, and ‡g etc. are not used in 264 _1. For printer statements, use 264 _3

Indicators 2 and 3 are required if 264 _1‡a, ‡b, or ‡c has a bracketed statement [x not identified]. Indicators 2 & 3 should be unusual in CIP records, since the CIPs are initiated by the publisher.

____ 264 _2 Distribution statement. In RDA, if the information is available, a distribution statement is added only if information in some part of the publication statement cannot be supplied (e.g. [publisher not identified], [date of publication not identified]). Use subfield delimiters ‡a, ‡b, and ‡c. Be careful not to transcribe distribution statements in 264 _1; you cannot combine a publisher and distributor in 264 _1.

____ 264_3 Manufacturer statement. In RDA, if the information is available, a manufacturer statement is added only if information in some part of the publication or distribution statement cannot be supplied (e.g. [publisher not identified], [date of distribution not identified]). Uses subfield delimiters ‡a, ‡b, and ‡c. Manufacturer statements for books generally transcribe the printer information, formerly entered in 260 ‡e, ‡f, and ‡g.

___ 264 _4 ‡c Copyright date. Delimiters ‡a & ‡b are not used. If the date in 264 _1 is in brackets and is the same as the copyright date, this is now considered sufficient and 264 _4 doesn't need to be made. Since the addition of 264 _4 is now optional, some library cataloging will include the copyright date in 264 _4, but it is not necessary. As long as there is a date in 264 _1 (bracketed or not), 264 _4 is not required, even if it differs from 264 _1. However, if the copyright date field is entered, leave it as is; it should have the copyright symbol © rather than the lower case "c" used in AACR2. If a 264 _4 is in the record, be sure to verify that the 008 date has Type of Date coded as "t" rather than "s. Date 1 should have the publication date and Date 2 should have the copyright date even if the copyright date is the same as the publication date.

___ 264 _0 Production statement. Used only for unpublished material, so it would be out of scope for CIP.

AACR2 ‡a

260 ‡a Place of publication, distribution, etc.  Make sure that the place of publication matches the first place listed on the title page. If no place is listed on the title page, check the verso of the title page. Only the first place of publication is transcribed when the first place of publication is in the U.S. If the first place listed is not in the U.S. and  subsequent places are in the U.S., include also the first U.S. place  in a second subfield a. If more than one publisher is transcribed, the first place associated with each publisher must be transcribed in separate subfield a's.


Title page:

by J. Jones

Poor People's Press
New York San Francisco London New Delhi 1998

Transcribe as:

260     ‡a New York : ‡b Poor People's Press, ‡c 1998.

Title page: 

by Harold Smith

Poorman's Press
London New York Dallas Jerusalem 

Transcribe as:

260     ‡a London ; ‡a New York : ‡b Poorman's Press, ‡c 2005.

COMMENT: The second subfield a is preceded by a semicolon; there should be a space on either side of the semicolon.

RDA ‡a simplifies: in all cases, only the first location needs to be transcribed. Alternatively, all the locations may be transcribed, but this won't be common. (You could also cherry pick your locations, but you are advised not to)

264   1 ‡a London : ‡b Poorman's Press, ‡c 2005.

You must change the place of publication on the CIP printout if it does not correspond to the book.  This generally occurs because the first place listed on the book does not correspond to the first place transcribed on the CIP.

AACR2. In general, transcribe the place as it appears on the title page. If the state is included as part of the place of publication, transcribe it as well. If the publisher abbreviates the state's name, use the publisher's abbreviation, even if it is a postal code. However, if the publisher does not abbreviate the state's name, use the authorized AACR2 abbreviation for the state, not the postal code.

RDA. The city and the state or country are transcribed as found. If the book uses postal codes as abbreviations, the postal codes are transcribed. If the book uses abbreviations not listed in the Appendix, they are transcribed as is. If the higher jurisdiction is not abbreviated, it is transcribed as is.

If the state or country are not on the book, they are generally not supplied in brackets. There is an option to add the higher jurisdiction if the cataloger believes the state or country of the place is not evident. However, if there is no place of publication given at all, it will usually be supplied in brackets. Occasionally you may see "[Place of publication not identified]" but this is not considered to be best practice. If this phrase is used, RDA requires addition of the distribution or printing place. If at all possible catalogers are supposed to supply at least the probable name of the country.

If you change the place of publication, you must update the fixed field by clicking on the 008 button and locating the Place of Publication box. Scroll to the country code or type the first letter of the code (they are in alphabetical order by code; scroll further if necessary) and select it, then click OK. Typing the first 2 letters of the place code is no longer a feature in Voyager.

Foot of title page:

Graphic Arts Press
New York Burlington Durham


CIP has:

260     ‡a Burlington : ‡b Graphic Arts Press, ‡c 2004.

Update to:

260     ‡a New York : ‡b Graphic Arts Press, ‡c 2004.

CIP has:

260     ‡a Burlington : ‡b Graphic Arts Press, ‡c 2004.

Update to:

260     ‡a New York : ‡b Graphic Arts Press, ‡c 2004.

AACR2/RDA. To update the fixed field date, first click on the 008 button:

Then, click on the Place of Publication, type "n" and scroll to "nyu."

No place of publication

This situation is unlikely for books created by the CIP program since its focus is on general interest publications, and unless the publisher provides publication details, including address, the book cannot be included in the CIP workflow. The program explicitly rejects self-published books, where the absence of publication data is most frequent. If for some reason a place of publication is lacking on the book itself, assume the place given in the CIP record is accurate and put it in brackets. More likely scenario is that the place supplied by the publisher will differ from the place given on the published t.p. See the Graphic Arts Press example above.


260     ‡a [S.l.] : ‡b Crink, ‡c 2010.

RDA. English phrase is used instead of S.l., but best practice is to supply a place in brackets.

260     ‡a [Place of publication not identified] : ‡b Crink, ‡c 2010.

For the CIP program, you can enter the name of the state in brackets; if you cannot make a reasonable guess on the state, use "[United States]." The best practice is to avoid ever using "[Place of publication not identified]."

Different Record?

Remember that a difference in both place and publisher usually signals that your CIP record is not the one you want for your book.